Clients who are eligible to receive data products from the LSST project will require a service for the distribution of that data to their local sites. The amount of data involved will be significant (hundreds of TBs to PBs) so whatever tool is chosen must be capable of performing well over long distance, high speed networks. The system must also be able to operate in a sustained mode so that data can be transferred as soon as it is ready, in order to reduce the likelihood of overwhelming the data source on “flag day”. There are a variety of basic tools that could be leveraged to implement such a system, such as ftp, rsync, REST, scp, and so on. However, significant software development and ongoing maintenance would be required to build the desired service out of these tools. With an eye toward leveraging existing middleware tools that are supported by a broad community, this paper will not discuss these utilities. There are as well, a plethora of new open source projects such as upspin, duplicity, rclone, and more, that have sprung up to aid in data transfer amongst disparate cloud storage services. These applications are not intended for use at the data volume required by LSST and, as such, are also not considered here. A third class of storage services that do not fit the prerequisites of a data distribution system, but that might still be of interest to the project, are those such as Fedora Commons (https://duraspace.org/fedora/), DSpace (https://duraspace.org/dspace/about/), and even GitHub (https://github.com/features). These services offer a variety of platforms for data sharing and access.
2 Middleware Tools¶
These software systems are more broadly capable toolsets created by communities with needs to distribute/share data similar to LSST’s requirements. The first tools/services have well established communities of users and developers. Zettar zx is included here as an item of interest but is both relatively new and a commercial product.
- Globus Online
- Zettar zx
The dCache software package is designed to create a single namespace for distributed data. It can support geographically dispersed locations and provides data replication and access steering. The software is open source and is used, largely, in the high energy physics centers such as to support many of the tier one CERN LHC sites. It supports data access via NFSv4.1 (jrpc), HTTP/WebDav and xrootd4j as well as a native API (libdcap) and xRootD.
- Well established and supported product
- Open source
- Supports many modes of operation, including using tiered/HSM storage
- Can run on a wide range of systems
- Has support for immutable files
- Has support for usage billing
- Complex to set up and administer
- May require application integration
- Global namespace may not be desired for LSST’s application
- Requires client sites to “join” the file system
2.2 Globus Online¶
Globus Online is a data transfer and sharing service built on GridFTP and integrated cloud services. It offers users both a simple to use web interface as well as a Python API and a simple shell CLI. The service provides highly resilient, “hands free” data transfer. The service supports automated retries, encryption, file check summing, restarts, and access to several cloud storage services. The service integrates easily with OAuth2 authentication systems as well as easing local account management by allowing Globus users to share and delegate access rights to other Globus users, eliminating the need for local accounts to be created on the storage systems.
- Easy to set up and maintain
- Large number of academic and government research institutions already use Globus Online
- Reduces local account management requirements
- Data transfers are highly reliable
- Interrupted file transfers can be restarted at the last known safe data offset
- Simple programmatic APIs greatly reduce development and integration
- LSST could leverage NCSA’s subscription
- Not truly open source (access to source code requires a paid subscription)
- Free service level available to education and non-profit organizations is limited
- Some European agencies have an aversion to Globus’ because of their move away from open source
- Recent versions of GCS5 (Globus Connect Server) have reduced capabilities (one DTN/endpoint)
The iRODS software system is designed to create federation of distributed data from heterogeneous pools of storage. It provides a single unified namespace from specified data sources through an internal metadata system. iRODS provides data management functions such as replication, search/discoverability, and rule based automation. It has many similarities to RUCIO. iRODS is open source and free but support may be contracted through the iRODS Consortium or commercial versions .
- Open source software
- Reasonably large user community
- Support for most common operating systems
- Many access tools already available and multiple language APIs
- Highly configurable
- Built-in data transfer service
- Complex to install, configure and maintain
- Requires its own database for metadata
- Automation requires manual application of file metadata for rules to function
- May have metadata performance and scalability issues
- May require additional server resource for meta-data database (load-balancing, high-availability, etc.)
RUCIO is a data management software system developed to support the needs of the ATLAS project . It has a proven track record on projects in the high energy physics community and is now seeing adoption in other communities, for example, Xenon1T and LSST. RUCIO allows the creation of a federated view of heterogeneous and distributed pools of data. It provides a rich set of services to manage, replicate and distribute data sets with flexible name space organization. This set of slides is a very good introduction: https://indico.fnal.gov/event/16010/contribution/2/material/slides/0.pdf
- A proven system at large scale operations
- LSST is already using RUCIO in its data backbone service and has current experience with the software
- May require integration with a third-party transfer tool, such as Globus, for external customers
- May require external customers to join LSST’s namespace if there is no other transfer tool desired
The xRootD software is intended to provide data access in a high-performance, fault tolerant framework. It is similar in function to Globus GridFTP in that is not a data management orchestration system. It focuses on moving data between systems across networks. It is open source and primarily distributed via GitHub (https://github.com/xrootd/xrootd). xRootD is used for data transfer by other management software, such as dCache and RUCIO.
- Has been in wide use in the HEP community since about 2015
- Open source
- Is already integrated with dCache and RUCIO
- Not widely used outside the HEP community
- Is less feature rich than Globus
- Limited OS support
- Is only source distributed
2.6 Zettar zx¶
There is little detail about this relatively new data transfer tool. It appears to be sourced from Zettar (https://www.zettar.com/), which claims to be a revenue-supported startup in Palo Alto. They have been awarded grants from NSF and DOE, and have conducted research and testing in cooperation with ESNet. So, while this appears to be a commercial product, it bears watching and a better understanding of the license rights that might be available. A white paper on some of that work is at Intel’s web site at: https://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/white-papers/dependable-hyperscale-data-transfers-with-intel-ssd-dc-white-paper.pdf
Of the available tools for strict data transfer, Globus Online is the clear winner. It provides robust data transfer capabilities, is easy to deploy, and has a rich set of user data management functions. It is also widely deployed in the educational and national research communities. For a more comprehensive data management solution, RUCIO seems to be the best candidate for LSST. It is already in use by the project so little extra effort would be required to extend it into this data distribution domain. Coupling RUCIO, for the data curation, with Globus Online, for external distribution, would provide the most comprehensive solution based on the currently understood requirements.